1. Case Study on “Successfully introduced with Solid WASTE DISPOSAL System in Mirhajirbagh area Community Based Organization (CBO)” by Population Services and Training Center (PSTC)
Mollah para is one of the slums of Mirhajirbagh CBO-1. A total of 400 Households live in the slum and about 30 shops are available by the road side. The road to enter in the para/slum was always full of scattered wastes for a long time. People using the road were not bothered about this situation. There was no specific place for waste disposal so the slum people and the shop owners kept the wastes by the road side in a scattered manner. People walked by the dirt covering their nose with their hand. Adults and children both suffered from Diarrheal diseases and skin diseases.
PSTC and CBO tried to overcome this situation by discussing with Ward Councilor and took the initiative but were not fully successful. Then the CBO decided on overcoming the situation themselves. They collected 1 Van, 2 trolleys from PSTC through written application and formed a Waste Management Committee. There would be one Caretaker who would clean the road, collect the waste from the 600 HHs of Mollah para and Kamaler bari, shops by side of the road and dispose the waste in the City Corporation Dustbin near Dayaganj. After this initiative nobody anymore kept the waste in the roadside. CBO was able to aware the Slum people and Shop owner to continue disposing their waste in the pot/bag and giving in the van regularly. In EXCHANGE of the effort by the CBO and the waste management committee every household and the shop owners paid the caretaker 20 Taka per month.
Now the road remains clean, and there is no MORE of bad smell and people walking by covering their nose. Overall Slum scenario by the road has been changed. Children’s suffering also decreased. CBO, slum people were very glad to see the change. They felt that if there is a will, there is a way.
Abu Bakkar Siddique said, “I have a small medicine shop by the road side, I suffered a lot for the bad smell. I sold maximum medicines for diseases like skin disease, and Diarrhea. But now the road is clean, no more bad smell and sale of medicine of aforesaid diseases has been decreased. The environment of the area has been changed.”
2. Successful Approaches to Recycling Urban Wood Waste
This report presents eight case studies of successful urban wood waste recycling projects and businesses. These studies document the success of recovered products such as lumber and lumber products, mulch, BOILER fuel, and alternative cover for landfills. Overall, wood waste accounts for about 17% of the total waste received at municipal solid waste landfills in the United States. In
1998, the amount of urban wood waste generated was more than 160 million tons, with 29.6 million tons available for recovery. Similarly, in 1998, new construction in the United States generated 8.7 million tons of wood waste, with 6.6 million tons available for recovery; demolition waste generated 26.4 million tons of wood waste, with 9 million tons available for recovery. The case studies were selected on the basis of the following criteria: an emphasis on partnerships among communities, businesses, governments, and non-governmental organizations; efficient use of FUNDS; sustained creation of enterprise; and a high benefit/cost ratio.
3.Municipal Solid Waste Management in Emerging Mega Cities: A case study of Pune City
Waste is an unavoidable byproduct of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities has led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development inefficient management and disposal of solid waste, is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most of the cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste of roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. The purpose of MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE management (MSW) system is to improve the present practices of MSW in that prevail in many developing countries where it has received sufficient attention. This paper describes the present scenario of the SWM practices carried out in the emerging mega city - A Pune City. It also describes the solid waste collection, transportation, treatment and disposal methodology adopted in Pune city.
4.A case study on successful municipal SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT in industrialized countries by the example of Karlsruhe city, Germany
Solid wastes constitute a growing problem and have gained increased political awareness over recent years. The amount of solid waste generated in the world is steadily increasing and every government in this world is currently focusing on methods to approach the challenge. This paper is to present a case study on municipal solid waste management in the city of Karlsruhe in Germany and its practice as lessons learnt. This is because country like Germany is recognized one of the greatest examples in the world to deal with such issue. In order to solve the solid waste management problems in the World, this study is recommended that clear goals and timeframes need to be established, duties and responsibilities of national and local governments and industry clarified and funding needs to be allocated in order to produce an effective waste management framework in developing and developed countries in the world.
5.Zero Waste Management in Borås, Sweden
Sweden is one of the pioneers in resource recovery and waste management sector for more than 30 years. City of Borås has a great impact on Sweden in sustainable waste management by reducing landfill, recovering fuel from waste and recycling. From 2006, collaboration between University of Borås, Borås Energy and Environment (local municipality) and SP technicalRESEARCH institute of Sweden was started to transfer knowledge and technology on sustainable waste management from Sweden to other countries. In addition, to these three collaborators twenty more state municipalities and private companies collectively initiated an organization to transfer knowledge on waste management called ‘Waste Recovery – International Partnership’.
6.Biogas Plant enhancing Waste Management
Sesa Sterlite under its HSE department has established an eco-friendly unit of Bio Gas at Lanjigarh decentralization of waste treatment in the Plant area. The plant, with a capacity to process 3 tons of waste daily, is the biggest of its kind and the only one in the District.
The Bio-gas plant was built at a cost of Rs.60 lakh, which includes operation and maintenance cost for two years.
7. CCP's waste management: A success story
The systematic management of waste through the strict enforcement of norms for segregation of garbage and imposing of penalties on violators helped the Corporation of the City of Panaji (CCP) bring some order to the hotel waste problem during its six-month campaign last year. This initiative has lessons for waste managers, as hotels and eateries in urban areas contribute predominantly to the bulk of the total waste generated in towns and cities.
8. Alkamaar Waste to Energy - Netherlands
04 February 2014
AZ Alkmaar Soccer Stadium
Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plant in Alkmaar delivers heat to the AZ football club’sstadium.
The heat is transported to the stadium via a district heating network and is used to provide hot water for the showers as well as to heat the stadium complex and the pitch. This makes AZ one of the few Dutch football clubs that can continue to train in the winter.
Connecting all the football club’s buildings to the heat distribution network produces the same reduction in carbon dioxide emissions as if more than 38,000 solar panels were used. That is roughly 10 football pitches full of solar panels.
This means a potential emission reduction of approximately 9 million kilograms of carbon dioxide per year. This is the equivalent to the exhaust fumes from nearly 3,500 motor cars each year. The annual savings amount to approximately 5 million cubic meters of natural gas.
Heating and cooling distribution project in Alkmaar, Netherlands
There are a large number of residential developments being built in Alkmaar. If the heat from the WtE plant would be used to heat them it would save 600 tonnes of carbon dioxide for every 500 homes.
Pipes will have to be laid from the plant to the centre of Alkmaar. With these pipes approximately 2,500 dwellings in Overdie and the same number in Overstad can be connected to the network. You would need 40 solar panels to make the equivalent saving in carbon dioxide emissions for one family using heat from the WtE plant during one year.
The first phase of the main grid project has been accomplished (3 km pipeline connecting WtE plant and the city). Since October 2010 a large local school uses the heat from the plant (1.5MW) and since February 2011 the first dwellings were connected to the grid. At the end of 2011, 300 dwellings will be connected to the heating grid with the final goal of connecting 10,000 dwellings.
HVC is exploring whether it is possible to produce and supply cooling using absorption-cooling. This technology enables heat to be used to produce cooling. The alternative is to use energy inefficient, noisy, air conditioners.
General information on the WtE plant in Alkmaar, Netherlands
- 4 incineration lines process approximately 660,000 tonnes of residual waste per year.
- The plant generates 50 MW heat (enough for heating 16,000 houses) and 68 MW of electricity (sufficient for a city of 130,000 residents).
9. Bangalore activist on the road to plastic success story
Apr 14, 2008 at 12:14am IST
Bangalore: Nearly one-fourth of the waste generated in Bangalore everyday comprises plastic.
But Ahmed Khan, Founder of KK Plastic Waste Management, discovered a unique and an innovative way to use the waste to make better and stronger roads.
The plastic he collected has helped pave a 430-km stretch of road.
"It’s creating a lot of awareness. My younger brother and I had a lot of discussion on this issue of plastic being used to make roads," says Khan.
Khan's work takes him to the dump yard everyday. There he uses his patented technology to mix tons of the city's plastic waste with bitumen that's used to construct roads.
The plastic acts a great binding agent to make roads last longer.The technology has also given the city a way to get rid of the 9,000 tons of plastic waste it generates every day.
“When we want to use these for road construction, we need to buy whatever comes and can’t stop anywhere. Even if PWD and others don’t purchase them, we have to stock all the plastic that comes in dump yard,” he says.
He tied up with the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike to use plastic in laying 40 per cent of the city's roads.
Over five years and many monsoons later, his roads have survived the test.
10. Biogas bottling plant – A success story
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has taken a new initiative for bottling of biogas to demonstrate an integrated technology package in entrepreneurial mode on medium size mixed feed biogas-fertilizer plants (BGFP) for generation, purification/enrichment, bottling and piped distribution of biogas.
Keeping in view the energy shortage in the country there is a need to tap biomass resources such as cattle dung, kitchen waste, agricultural waste etc. for generation of biogas through the involvement of entrepreneurs and industries to set up decentralised biogas based energy infrastructure in the country, at the potential sites where biomass available is in plenty.
Under technology demonstration of new RDD&D Policy of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), the Ministry took up a new initiative for bottling of biogas to demonstrate an integrated technology package in entrepreneurial mode on medium size mixed feed biogas-fertilizer plants (BGFP) for generation, purification/enrichment, bottling and piped distribution of biogas.
Installation of such plants aims at meeting stationary and motive power, cooling, refrigeration and electricity needs in addition to cooking and heating requirements. Under the demonstration phase, the Ministry is providing a central financial assistance of 30-50 per cent of the cost (excluding cost of land) for a limited number of such projects for implementation following an entrepreneurial mode on built, own and operate (BOO) and reimbursement basis.
So far 15 BGFP projects with aggregate capacity of 11,200 cu m per day have been sanctioned in 8 States, namely Gujarat, Karnataka, Punjab, Chhatisgarh, Haryana, Maharastra, Rajasthan and Bihar by the MNRE for implementation.
The first biogas bottling plant
A 500 N cu m biogas generation per day capacity BGFP project for generation, purification/enrichment, bottling of biogas was sanctioned by the MNRE with Rs 50 lakh
CFA during the year 2009-10 to Ashoka Biogreen Pvt Ltd at village Talwade, District Nasik, Maharashtra. The first biogas bottling plant was commissioned on 16 March 2011 after obtaining license for filling and storage of compressed biogas in CNG cylinders from Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation (PESO).
The biogas generated from the plant has achieved a purity of 98.4 per cent methane and this has been corroborated through tests conducted by Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi (NABL). The purity of the enriched biogas is continuously monitored by an online analysing system along with calibration of analysers. The purified biogas is equivalent / similar to CNG.
Quantity processed (Cow dung,
agricultural waste etc.)
500 N cu m
270 N cu m
Purified biogas used for captive
power generation (30 per cent)
81 N cu m
Purified/upgraded biogas filled in
cylinders at 150 bars*
16 cylinders of 9 kg each filled.
* Equivalent to Rs 5,040 of CNG or Rs 7, 200 of commercial LPG
** Used as liquid fertilizer substituting chemical fertilizer worth Rs 10,000.
The biogas generation capacity of the plant is 500 N cu m per day and based on NISARGRUNA (BARC) Technology. The purity of biogas is about 98 per cent and it is compressed to 150-bar pressure for filling in cylinders. The upgraded biogas is used for power generation, cooking and industrial application. The slurry of biogas plant is being used as an organic fertilizer in the nearby agro fields. The field trials have indicated 150 per cent growth in agro-production and substantial improvements in the quality.
11. First zero waste colony in Delhi!
To economically and efficiently operate a waste management program requires significant cooperation from generators, regardless of the strategies. Sarita Vihar is one such success story.
A clean city is not an accident but is a concerted effort of the citizens, the state, the city managers and the civil society. The mode of the decision-making process -- how to manage solid waste in urban areas -- has seen a paradigm shift from the "decide-announce-defend' premise of local authorities to a more involved public participation in the solid waste management strategy. To economically and efficiently operate a waste management program requires significant cooperation from generators, regardless of the strategies chosen. Public involvement is expected not only in policy formulation but also in being actively involved in waste management and disposal.
It is estimated that the total solid waste generated by 300 million people living in urban India is 38 million tonnes per year. About 1,00,000 MT of municipal solid waste is generated daily in the country. Urban local bodies spend about Rs 500 to Rs 1,500 per tonne on solid waste for collection, transportation, treatment and disposal. Moreover, in several municipalities, the landfill sites have been exhausted and do not have resources to acquire new land.
The problem has reached a state where the highest judiciary of the nation, the Supreme Court, had directed every concerned authority responsible for collection, storage, segregation, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes in all parts of the country to implement the provisions laid down in Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 2000, by December 31, 2003. These Rules aim at creating zero waste cities in our country by the active participation of municipalities, community-based organisations, NGOs and citizens.
12. Success Story: 20,000 homes in Kerala use indigenous at source Biogas plant
BIOTECH is an NGO based in Kerala, South India, which has developed biogas digesters for managing food waste and other organic waste in more than 20,000 households, 220 institutions and 19 municipal sites. The digesters are prefabricated from ferro-cement and gas collectors made from Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) so that they can be installed quickly and easily on site and has no electric or moving parts.
Biogas is produced from the decomposition of the organic matter in anaerobic conditions, and in households and institutions the gas is used directly for cooking, giving savings of about 50% when displacing LPG use.
The main feedstock for the plants is food waste, but cow dung needs to be used initially to provide a culture of suitable bacteria to get the digestion process started. Food waste is simply mixed with organic wastewater from the kitchen in a bucket and poured into the plant inlet, and no additional water is needed. Biogas gradually collects in the gas holder as the waste decomposes, and a pipe is used to take it to a special biogas stove in the kitchen. A valve is used to open and shut the flow, and a regulator varies the flame. The effluent from the plants is virtually odourless and has a high content of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, so it can be used as a garden fertiliser.
Nearly 20,000 domestic plants have been installed, serving about 80,000 people.
Some systems take waste from toilets as well as kitchens, to reduce health risks and contamination of ground water, and with these systems up to 75% of LPG can be replaced. Larger systems are used at markets and municipal sites, and at these the biogas is cleaned and then used to run small engines to generate electricity for lighting.
The largest system is an integrated energy-from-waste plant that processes nearly three tonnes of organic waste per day, including sorted municipal waste and effluent from an abattoir. Here a number of individual digesters are used to manage the different types of organic waste, so that the bacteria in each digester become optimised for the specific waste type.
The cost of the plant is about 400$ and about half the cost is subsidized by grants from both the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and the local body government. The pay back period for the system is less than 3 years.
It is encouraging to see such success stories and Panchabuta will aim to bring out such success stories in India. Readers are encouraged to contribute towards the same by sending an email to panchabuta.cleantech (at) gmail(dot)com.
13. New age alchemists
More and more companies are making wealth from waste and, in the process, saving the environment from devastation. Business Today looks at five of these green businesses.
More and more companies are making wealth from waste and, in the process, saving the environment from devastation. Business Today looks at five of these green businesses.
FABRIC FROM PLASTIC
Arora Fibres recycles discarded plastic bottles into polyester used as packaging material
Don't chuck out those plastic bottles that have been piling up in your kitchen for days. They can be re-used to make polyester fabric. Rupinder Singh Arora, Chairman of Arora Fibres Ltd, has been recycling discarded plastic bottles into polyester staple fibre since 1994 after he saw the colossal damage to the environment from mountains of bio-degradable plastic being burned in the country. "We were the pioneers in this field.
Apart from a commercial interest , converting PET Into polyester has a huge positive impact on the environment," says Arora. PET stands for polyethylene terephthalate.
Arora brought the technology to India after tying up with Korean company Mijung, which specialised in converting PET bottles into polyester yarn. His factory in the industrial belt of Silvassa in Dadra & Nagar Haveli has the capacity to process 18,000 tonnes of plastic a year and he plans to increase that to 48,000 tonnes by next year. Arora says the environmental benefit of recycling discarded plastic bottles is enormous. "By recycling 10 billion PET bottles, one can save one million square yards of landfill space and eliminate 0.25 million tonnes of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere.
Rupinder Singh Arora, Chairman, Arora Fibres, sitting at his office in Silvassa
Rupinder Singh Arora, Chairman, Arora Fibres, sitting at his office in Silvassa. 'Plastic has been profitable for Arora Fibres: the company hopes to touch Rs 75 crore in revenues this year' Photo: Rachit Goswami/www.indiatodayimages.com
And recycling one kg of PET saves around 25,000 BTUs (British Thermal Units)," he says. Plastic has clearly been profitable for Arora Fibres. It tapped the primary market in 1994 to raise Rs 9.6 crore to set up the Silvassa plant and logged Rs 34 crore in revenues in the financial year that ended March 2013. It hopes to touch Rs 75 crore this year. The polyester fibre has a huge market in many industries such as automobiles and is also used as packaging material for beverages, food products, pharmaceuticals, and consumer and industrial products.
But the business has had its ups and downs. Although there are about 20 players who convert nearly 300,000 tonnes of PET bottles into polyester fibre each year, the industry depends on rag pickers for raw material. Arora says the industry was also hit by an increase in raw material prices and a fall in finished product prices. "The shortage of raw material and the power problems until 2010 in Silvassa have been the reasons why others overtook us in the business," he says.
"Despite competition and profitability getting squeezed, net margins remain healthy at 10 per cent."
Amit Sengupta Executive Director, VA Tech Wabag
Amit Sengupta Executive Director, VA Tech Wabag, at a water treatment plant near Chennai. 'Recycled industrial and municipal waste water is used as drinking water or ploughed into industry' Photo: H. K. Rajashekar
Wabag is helping companies clean up their act by reusing waste water
It is sometimes said that water, and not oil, is the real liquid gold today. Water technology company VA Tech Wabag would certainly agree. The Chennai-based company recycles industrial and municipal waste water either for reuse as drinking water or to plough back for industrial use.
And money has been flowing like water. Executive Director Amit Sengupta says 10 to 15 per cent of the company's revenues come from recycling, but he expects it to account for 50 per cent of Wabag's business in the next 10 years. Last year, the company recorded revenues of Rs 1,000 crore in India.
Wabag has helped many companies clean up their act. Six years ago, it stepped in to help Indian Oil Corp's Panipat refinery when a farmers's lobby in Haryana raised a hue and cry over the company's waste water discharge. The water treatment company recycled the entire plant's waste water discharge and made it as pure as drinking water. It will build an effluent treatment plant with recycling facilities for Reliance Industries' purified terephthalic acid plant in Dahej and a tertiary treatment plant for the Reliance petrochemicals complex in Hazira.
Sengupta says though a scare resource, water is cheap in India and people will not reuse it until the government comes out with strict rules or water becomes more expensive. So, how much of the waste water is reusable? "The short answer is 'All of it'," says Sengupta. "But it depends on the quality for reuse as per customer requirements."
Irfan Furniturewala, Chairman, Hanjer Biotech Energies
Irfan Furniturewala, Chairman, Hanjer Biotech Energies, at a waste processing plant in Mumbai. Hanjer plans to take over four to five closed biomass power plants to generate around 40 MW of green power Photo: Nishikant Gamre/www.indiatodayimages.com
Hanjer is turning solid waste into fuel to run power plants
Ever wondered what happens to all that garbage at landfills dotting your city? You'd be surprised. Some of it can actually be recycled to generate power . Waste management company Hanjer Biotech Energies realised that when it kickstarted India's first green power plant in Jalgaon in Maharashtra this year by using a byproduct of solid waste as fuel. The biomass power plant had been closed because of the unavailability of husk rice, the raw material for fuelling the plant, which pushed Hanjer to turn to refuse derived fuel (RDF) from municipal solid waste to generate seven megawatts (MW) of green power.
The concept of converting waste to energy is not new, but Mumbai-based Hanjer plans to take it to a new level following the success of its experiment in Jalgaon. It plans to take over four to five closed biomass power plants in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan to generate around 40 MW of green power and then set up a green power plant in Surat, Gujarat that runs completely on fuel from solid waste.
Usually, 20 to 30 per cent of supporting fuel such as coal or oil is used along with RDF to generate power.
The plant in Surat will use green fuel derived from waste from three of the company's solid waste processing facilities in the state to generate 15 MW of power. The plant has the potential to reduce green house gas emissions and will earn carbon credits for Hanjer. "Of the total 9,100 tonnes of waste which we process, around 18 to 20 per cent is green RDF. With the amount of green RDF produced after recycling the waste, we can run six 15 MW power plants," says Irfan Furniturewala, Founder and Chairman of Hanjer.
How does the system work? Simple, green RDF is generated from dry municipal solid waste that is dried, crushed, screened and packed into brick form. The clean and nonpolluting fuel is used as a substitute for conventional fossil fuels such as coal which is in short supply. Hanjer posted revenues of Rs 410 crore in 2012/13 in an industry growing at 20 per cent a year.
Mahesh Choudhary, CEO, Microqual Techno, at his office in Mumbai
Mahesh Choudhary, CEO, Microqual Techno, at his office in Mumbai. Microqual is also capturing power lost during transmission to supply electricty to telecom mobile towers. Photo: Rachit Goswami
Microqual uses power transmission towers as telecom towers
Next time you drive along the Mumbai-Pune express highway and don't experience any dropped calls on your cellphone, you should thank Mahesh Choudhary. He is the CEO of Microqual Techno, a telecom infrastructure services company that has tied up with Mumbai-based outdoor advertising company Guju Ads to use its 1,000 billboards and hoardings across 13 cities as telecom towers sites. "This will help telecom companies bring down operational costs by 40 per cent and capex by 30 per cent," says Choudhary, who sees huge potential from the new initiative as 35 per cent of India still does not have mobile coverage and more than 50 per cent does not have a continuous mobile network.
Microqual is the first company in India to use power transmission towers as telecom towers. Apart from putting telecom antennas on the power transmission towers and running them as telecom mobile towers, the company is also capturing power that is lost during transmission and distribution to supply electricity to the telecom towers. Two sites are already operational - one in Kolar in Karnataka and another in Baddi in Himachal Pradesh. Microqual has exclusive rights for 10 years to use 85,000 Power Grid Corp of India transmission towers across Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.
Only 50 towers have been put to use so far. The journey to turn idle or waste resources into wealth started three years ago in Kerala when mobile services company Aircel wanted to set up telecom towers but found it difficult to operate within the cost it had estimated.
Microequal used a combination of solar and wind power to operate the telecom tower site and cut fuel expenses by 40 per cent. The innovation is paying off: the company posted Rs 600 crore in revenues last year. "In the next three to four years, the innovative vertical will account for 25 per cent of our business," says Choudhary.
Gururaja Upadhya, Co-founder, Cerebra Integrated TECHNOLOGIES, at an e-waste segregation plant near Bangalore
Gururaja Upadhya, Co-founder, Cerebra Integrated Technologies, at an e-waste segregation plant near Bangalore. 'The company is building India's largest e-waste recycling plant with the capacity to process 90,000 tonnes of e-waste' Photo: Nilotpal Baruah
Cerebra will extract precious and other metals from mountains of e-waste
Twenty years ago, tossing out an old toaster or much-used iron was unthinkable in India. Today, people don't think twice before changing computers and mobile phones almost every year. So, what happens to all the old gadgets and gizmos? They end up as e-waste.
One Bangalore-based infotech company, Cerebra Integrated Technologies, is doing its bit to reduce the glut of e-waste that some activists say is potentially the most dangerous waste problem in the world. It is building India's largest e-waste recycling plant that will begin operations by the end of this year. The plant will have the capacity to process close to 90,000 tonnes of e-waste. "We wanted to find a solution to dispose of the e-waste left after the repair and refurbishing process was completed, and realised there were only one or two medium-sized players in this business," says Gururaja Upadhya, Co-founder and Director-Technical at Cerebra Integrated Technologies.
But e-waste is also a treasure trove of precious and other metals. Cerebra sees big business in the mountains of e-waste in Bangalore which produces 200,000 tonnes of e-waste a year. The company plans to make its millions by extracting metals such as gold and platinum from the e-waste piling up in the city. A mobile phone, for example, is made up of a combination of rare earth and precious metals: it contains 250 mg of silver, 24 mg of gold and nine mg of palladium while a laptop has 1,000 mg of silver, 220 mg of gold and 500 grams of copper.
Cerebra hopes to wrap up its Rs 110-crore acquisition of Singaporebased Cimelia Resource Recovery this year, as part of its plans to make its mark in the global e-waste business. "The recycling business will bring in the maximum revenues for the group. In the next three to five years, we expect the business to be in excess of Rs 500 crore," says Upadhya. "More than 50 per cent of the company's revenue and profit would come out of our e-waste business."
Clearly, that's one recycle bin that's emptied regularly - but not deleted permanently.
14. Solid Waste Management in Mangalapady Village Panchayat in Kasaragode District- An example of multi-Village Panchayat Partnership
The Clean Kerala Mission assisted Mangalapady Village Panchayat inestablishing a waste processing plant using vermi composting and biomethanation. As the plant had sufficient capacity, adjoining Panchayatsof Kumbala and Mugral-puthur have joined with Mangalapady. ThesePanchayats send their waste to the processing plant in Mangalapadypaying Rs.0.70 per kg. as fee. In return they get 25% of the organicmanure generated by the waste supplied by them.Another innovation is the contracting out of the management of thePlant to Kasaragode Social Service Society, a local NGO of repute whichtakes 30% of the profit generated by sale of organic manureThis is an excellent example of what Village Panchayats can do in future– to come together to set up common facilities and share the costs as wellas the benefits.
15. Decentralized Solid Waste Managementin Chunakkara Village Panchayat in Alappuzha District– An example of Panchayat – NGO – Community Partnership
Chunakkara is a backward Village Panchayat of Alappuzha district with 14Wards covering 5411 households within an area of 17.32 kms2. Managementof Solid waste emerged as a major problem with waste piling up in all publicplaces inviting the protest of the public. The water bodies got polluted and thecanals became clogged. At this juncture, when the Village Panchayat wasdesperately searching for solutions, the Socio Economic Unit Foundation(SEUF), a leading NGO in the sanitation sector entered into a partnershipwith the Village Panchayat and decided to promote decentralized wastemanagement with focus on the household through a process of intensiveawareness building and community education.A trained resource group called the Programme Support Group (PSG) was setup. The expert members interacted with the community and convinced themabout the issues related to waste management. The PSG and the VillagePanchayat focused on localities within Wards. Each Ward was dividedinto 6 – 7 localities and from each locality two members were identified and aWard Level Committee was constituted, headed by the elected member fromthe ward. By drawing three members from each Ward Committee a PanchayatLevel Committee was also set up. These popular committees played an importantrole in mobilizing the public and converting their enthusiasm into action.
A step by step process was adopted consisting of the following steps
•Detailed base line study and plan formulation.
•Grassroots level mobilization and education of all stakeholders
•Demand generation by the public
•Community-based institution building
•Capacity building of the community with focus on women
•Involvement of school children
•Dissemination of information on cost effective technology
•Regular community based and Panchayat level monitoring.
Now Chunakkara has become a model for decentralized waste management inrural areas. Out of the 5411 households, 4980 have started vermi compostingin the compound and the manure is used to feed the kitchen gardens which have been set up in all the houses. All schools have been motivated to segregate,store and process waste in situ. A community level vermi compost plant hasbeen set up to deal with market waste.Chunakkara Village Panchayat is proud of its achievements and presents amodel of Panchayat – Professional – People partnership.
16. Decentralized Solid Waste Management in Alappuzha Municipality- an example of community based Solid Waste Managementin an urban situation
Alappuzha Municipality having 50 Wards and 32,203 households is spread over 47 kms2. With only about 50% of the 65 to 75 tonnes of waste generated every day being transported to the dumping yard in the adjacent Panchayat,the remaining waste spilled over into the beautiful ancient Venice like canal system of the town converting it into one of the most insanitary towns in the State. Here again the Municipal Council and Socio Economic Unit Foundation an NGO got into a partnership and initiated an Action Research Programme called “Women, Wellbeing, Work, Waste and Sanitation (4 W-S). After a small pilot, six Wards were identified covering 5624 households. The baseline survey indicated that only 10% of the households segregate their waste; 58% of the households burned their waste, while 16% threw them into their backyards and 15% resorted to dumping them in public places. Thus the challenge was quantified. Technical Committees and Popular Committees were set up and the strategy of participatory social engineering was employed. The elements of the programme included the following:
• Reduction at source
•Segregation at source
•Collection and sale of recyclables
•Household level processing of organic waste
•Substitution of plastic bags with cloth and paper bags
• Community policing to prevent people from violating the code of clean Surrounding
In a short span of time, 3350 households started vermi-composting. In 35places common vermi-compost units were set up. Nearly 2000 families started organic farming in their compounds. Three Paper Bag units have been started along with two Plant Nurseries. Through public action 8 kms of canals and 12 ponds have been cleaned and rejuvenated. The Alappuzha experiment has shown that through social engineering involving committed professionals and elected leaders, even in an urban setting, community behaviour can be changed for the better.
17. Introduction of door to door collection in Kozhikode Corporation- An example of a socially beneficial outsourcing to aCommunity Based Organization of poor women
Kozhikode city faced public uproar and even unrest over the overburdened dumping site, as waste of all kinds reached the end point, totally unsegregated. With a city having 72855 households and about 12,000 commercial stablishments, the problem seemed insurmountable.The City Corporation had the option of either increasing their staff or privatizing door to door collection. But it chose the third way of opening a business opportunity for the poorest of the poor. It cided to outsource door to door collection to the Kudumbashree network of women below poverty line.75 micro enterprise groups were set up with each group having 10 members.They were trained and provided a total subsidy of Rs.90 lakh and bank finance of Rs.187 lakh which was utilized for purchase of auto-rickshaws and other equipment. To motivate the households two bins one white and the other green were given to each household for keeping the waste segregated. A user charge ranging from Rs.15 to 30 per household per month was fixed, which the households gladly gave as it went to poor persons. Now 35% of the households and commercial establishments have been brought under this door-step collection system. Kozhikode town has become visibly cleaner and waste reaching the treatment site has increased by 25 to 30%. The initiative of Kozhikode Corporation has proved that, even in a big city, the Corporation can ensure proper door to door collection, if a socially sensitiveapproach of enhancing the livelihood of the poor is followed.
18. Zero waste campaign at Kovalam- An example of citizen demand leading to constructive action
Kovalam is an international tourist centre. As the place was getting degraded with all kinds of waste, the Tourism Department decided to set up an incinerator. This proposal was vociferously opposed by local people fearing the emissions of the incinerator. At this point of time ‘Thanal’- a local NGO, intervened and mobilized the people for finding out local solutions so that an alternative to the incinerator could be developed. After a preliminary study, discussions were held with different local groups and it was decided to wholeheartedly ensure that garbage disappeared from public places and to sustain this, create economic incentives for the waste generators as well as those involved in solving the problem.
The main components of the project were: -
• Biogas plant for biodegradable waste
• A resource recovery centre for non-biodegradable discards
• Material substitution programme promoting products made of paper, jute, cloth and coconut shell
• Poison free farming
• Water conservation
• Community capacity building
The project now has to be expanded and sustained – but it is a good model for channeling the benefits of waste management in a big tourist centre to the local people through local action.
19. Biogas plant, Vengidangu Grama Panchayat
Disposal of solid waste from slaughterhouses is a major environmental issue in most of the area. A Biogas plant was established in Vengidangu Grama Panchayt for treatment of solid waste from slaughterhouse. It is located at Muppattuthara of Vengidangu Panchayat. The estimated cost of Rs.3 lakhs was completely utilized for the project. The work of the plant ha been completed in two phases. During the 1st year, about Rs.1.10 lakhs has been spent for the plant and in the 2nd year, remaining Rs.1.90 lakh has been utilized for fulfilling the objectives of the project. Al-Ameen, Kudumbasree members are given charge of the plant and 15 Kudumbasree members set aside their time for the effective functioning of the plant. Agriculture Officer, Vengidangu Grama Panchayat was the implementing officer and he had put all his time and energy for the success of the plant
Even though, the plant started its functioning efficiently, it is having lot of infantile problem, and it cannot accomplish many of the objectives completely. The processing of slurry, which was one of the prime concerns, is yet to be solved. The infrastructural facilities for the slurry processing are to be arranged in a full-fledged manner. The slurry-processing unit will start functioning within a near future. It aims at the introduction of windrow composting for the mixture of slurry and vegetable waste pond and it is hoped that it can be accomplished in a very short period of time.
The operational procedure of the plant is as follows; the slaughter men used to bring the waste products from the slaughterhouse. They have to pay Rs.150 to the panchayat as service charge. The merchants are happy with the service charge as they can escape from the problems related to the disposal of slaughter waste with a minimum expenditure. The Kudumbasree members who are in charge of plant put there waste into the plants after cutting these into very tiny pieces. The biogas obtained from the plant is connected to a nearby house and the said family gets more than enough for their use. It is decided to give three more connections in the locality and the preliminary works such as laying of pipe, stove etc has been arranged and that will be connected as early as possible. The beneficiaries of the biogas have been paid Rs.150 per month to panchayat. More than 15 merchants also get the benefit of biogas plant. Kudumbasree members are provided with a remuneration of Rs.1000 per month.
20. Surat - a success story
The rapid urbanisation and rise in population in Surat led to the growth of slums, increase in garbage and overflowing drains. In 1994, Surat was struck by an outbreak of a virulent disease somewhat like the plague. The disease caused panic countrywide and while the citizens blamed the municipality, the civic authorities in turn blamed the citizens for their lack of civic sense. It was a harsh reminder of what negligence in the area of solid waste management can lead to.
But what was most amazing was that within a span of 18 months the city made a complete reversal from a dirty, garbage-strewn city to become one of the cleanest cities in the country. This transformation was possible thanks largely to the Surat Municipal Corporation and the efforts of the community. Community participation played a key role in the rapid implementation of decisions taken by the corporation.
Subsequent to the disaster, the attitudes of the citizens changed and they diligently tried to improve its living conditions. Institutional changes were the first thing to happen. The city was divided into six zones to decentralize the responsibilities for all civic functions. A commissioner was appointed for each zone with additional powers. The officials responsible for solid waste management were made accountable for their work; and field visits were made mandatory for them each day. The solid waste management department and other related departments were made to work and cooperate with one another. Grievance redressal cards were issued to people so that complaints could be registered. The complaint was attended to within 24 hours and the card returned to the citizen. In addition to the administrative changes, the changed laws had an important role to play in improving the conditions by also making the citizens aware of and responsible for certain preventive actions. Indeed, these are some of the very basic changes that need to be introduced in the functioning of all urban local bodies. Initially, the Gujarat Government’s Municipal Act did not have any provision to penalize littering. However, after the plague, the government realized that it was important to impose such a penalty in order to make people aware of their responsibility in maintaining their city’s cleanliness. Thereafter, a fine of Rs 50 was imposed for every offence of littering and it was doubled for every subsequent offence. The city roads were swept twice a day and the corporation, in an appreciable attempt, has engaged private sweepers to cover different inner areas of the town. Private contractors are also actively involved in the transport, collection, and disposal of solid waste.
With this vigorous cleanliness drive through regular garbage collection and sweeping of roads and other public areas undertaken by the municipal corporation, success was achieved. But this successful turnaround could not have been achieved without the support and cooperation of the people. Surat has thus become a model city and the working of its municipality an example for other municipal corporations to follow and implement in their respective cities.
21. TERI and JMI launch report on landfill gas recovery from Okhla waste disposal site
The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in association with Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI) launched a report entitled, “Demonstration of Clean Technology for Landfill Gas Recovery from the Okhla Waste Disposal site”.
The objective of this pilot demonstration study is to capture and purify the landfill gas being emitted uncontrolled from the Okhla landfill site by using indigenously developed technology options. The captured landfill gas can be used as the source of energy thereby reducing the risk of uncontrolled methane emissions from landfill, which is a potential Green House Gas (GHG). The project is supported by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
Lauding the initiative, Dr R.K.Pachauri, Director General, TERI said, “With rapid urbanization, areas under landfill are expanding rapidly, thus compounding the environmental challenge we face. The development of technologies such as under this project provides sustainable solutions and options for dealing with this serious problem.”
Najeeb Jung, Vice Chancellor, JMI asserted, “Such waste disposal sites close to residential areas need urgent attention to address the issue of emission of methane”.
In the pilot demonstration, an active landfill gas collection system was employed, which comprised of a series of vertical wells (very similar to water bore wells) to be used for extracting LFG, optimal well spacing was provided for maximum gas collection along with a piping network and blowers that will connect the methane produced by the landfill and treatment and conditioning system.
The LFG pilot project at Okhla site if implemented at commercial level would demonstrate the following benefits:
• Demonstration of Clean Technology for abatement of GHG’s
• Utilization of an available source of energy, which is otherwise getting wasted.
• Substitution of fossil fuel by a renewable source of energy and recovery of possible carbon credit;
• Improvement in the operating conditions of existing Okhla landfill site and safe closure of the site;
• Reduction of biogas migration with subsequent reduction of odor and explosion risks;
• Provision of a model replicable for other landfill sites in India, with multiple benefits.
The study recommends that The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) canwork with the state governments to build their capacity in order to implement LFG to energy recovery projects. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) should also work closely to develop the incentives required to promote the use of LFG as renewable energy from landfills. MoEF should issue a notification in this regard to all the municipalities in the country to evaluate feasibility of capturing LFG from waste disposal sites so that its gainful utilisation can be pursued.
The study further suggests that the future landfills also need to be designed in such a manner that all the LFG which is generated can be captured and gainfully used. The health impacts of old landfills, and the economic benefits of LFG recovery and closure of old landfills should be included in the government policy. Lastly, MoEF may also issue a notification to all the Municipal corporations/Urban local bodies in the country to utilize LFG as a source of energy and also to design the future landfill sites scientifically which may be helpful for maximum LFG recovery and its utilization in India.
The pilot demonstration was conducted from March 2011 to November 2011 at Okhla landfill, spreading in 16.2 hectares and comprising biodegradable waste, non-biodegradable waste, recyclables, silt, construction demolition waste, and biomedical waste. The Okhla site neither has a landfill gas collection system nor a leachate collection and treatment system.
According to MCD, presently, about 1600 ton of MSW is being deposited at Okhla landfill site per day. About 90 per cent of the landfill is covered with waste, with a maximum height of about 40 m at a few places and average height of about 27 m above ground level. But the landfill does not have any system to manage surface water drainage; therefore, rainfall run-off from the landfill flows directly to the adjoining surface water drains.
22. Waste to wealth: ITC's success story
Anyone who has stayed at the swanky, 16-acre spread of the ITC Sonar Bangla in Kolkata will tell you that the energy requirements of the luxury hotel must be staggeringly high.
Even so, when it opened on introductory tariffs and low occupancies, only to be served up a whopping electricity bill of Rs 7 crore (Rs 70 million) in the first year, the management knew it would have to look for alternative solutions.
Immediately, consultants were hired on the simple mandate: reduce energy consumption. But that would have meant changing and revamping ducting and fittings while guests were staying at the hotel.
Instead, the pumps were retrofitted; the electric heaters were replaced by solar heaters; power-guzzling boilers were removed and condensed steam used to generate hot water; and variable frequency valves were used in the fans (needed for the air-conditioning), so that speeds could be adjusted, thereby eliminating energy wastage.
The result has been amazing. The company's electricity bill has dropped by 20 per cent (while occupancies have gone up by three-fourths). But it's not the reduction of the electricity bill alone that has put the smile back on the face of the management team. By reducing its energy consumption, the hotel has also brought down its carbon dioxide emission levels.